Australian Speleological Federation KID: ASF Field Definitions

Cave and Karst Definitions for ASF KID

This document was created from the ASF KID on Sat Jan 19, 2019

This is the current list of the Cave and Karst data fields in the ASF's KID. They are identical with the draft data fields of the Informatics Commission (UISIC) of the International Union of Speleology. The definitions below are arranged in UISIC Field ID (FID) order. The FID and field name are shown first, followed by the other details. If the field has coded values a link to the available codes for that field will be provided.

The full list of all definitions is here: Field Definitions.    The full list of all field value codes is here: Field Value Codes.
Also see the Notes at the end for the meanings of the various abbreviations used here.

To find a field name in this list use your browsers search facility to search for the text or partial text. If you know the FID, you can go straight to the field by adding #fid to the URL in your browser window and pressing <Return>.

Total number of Cave and Karst FIDs: 216


1 : Karst feature type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: For those karst features which are not caves, this field denotes what type of karst feature they are. It is mutually exclusive with 8[Cave type].


2 : Submersion
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The degree of submersion of THIS entrance. Blank if the entrance is never submerged.


3 : Flow presence
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Describes how active THIS entrance is. Comment: (1) An entrance is classified as 'dry' only when it is NEVER active. (2) Sea caves should not be classified as 'active' unless they contain a flowing stream, permanent or intermittent. If water in them is from the sea they should be described under 2[Submersion].


4 : Flow direction
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Describes the flow direction if THIS entrance is active, otherwise it is blank. Comment: (1) An "inflow-outflow" is an entrance where sometimes the stream flow is inwards, and at other times outwards. It is not used to describe a through-cave with an inflow at one end and an outflow at the other: such a cave is two items, an inflow and an outflow. (2) An inundated sea cave does not normally qualify as an inflow- outflow because the term refers to stream flow.


5 : Internal flow
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Describes the flow conditions inside a cave, if they differ from the flow conditions at THIS entrance, otherwise left blank. Example: This field would be completed where a dry entrance led to an internal stream, or where an intermittently active entrance led to a permanent stream. A perennially active entrance would not have this field completed unless its stream was joining another independent stream inside the cave.


6 : Internal water
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Describes the internal standing water conditions in a cave if they differ from the water conditions at THIS entrance, otherwise left blank.


7 : Rock type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Describes the type(s) of rock in which the cave or karst feature is formed. Usage: If this is a further entrance to a cave and its rock type is different from the rest of the cave, then record the respective rock type against this entrance also.


8 : Cave type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Describes the cave type(s), but left blank if 1[Karst feature type] has a value. Comment: One of either 8[Cave type] or 1[Karst feature type] must be completed for an item to be recorded.


9 : Quantity of entrances
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The total quantity of entrances to the cave, whether they are numbered or not, and including this one. Comment: Normally completed only for the main record for the cave and if there is more than one entrance.


10 : Entrance type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Identifies whether this entrance is a vertical pothole-type entrance or not, ignoring any inconsequential effects due to collapse in the immediate entrance area.


11 : Development
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Key words related to the development of the cave or karst feature, and sequenced so that a reasonably readable statement of development is the result. Comment: This is not intended to replace a description of the cave or karst feature, but to provide a finite number of terms for development searches. Of course the result is also a kind of description. Usage: (1) The same word can be used more than once. (2) A "through-cave" should be noted using this field. (3) A suggested method is to scan the list of available terms a few times to become more familiar with it, assess the significant aspects of the cave's development, construct a brief statement, write the code numbers against each word, and when OK, transfer the code numbers into the computer in the correct sequence.


12 : Decoration
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The degree of decoration or secondary deposits (speleothems) in the cave.


13 : Minimum temperature
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 5.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The minimum air temperature known to exist in the cave, expressed in degrees Celsius (but omitting the degrees symbol). Comment: This field is obviously too simplified to serve as an adequate scientific statement of a cave's minimum temperature. Its purpose is to give an approximate guide and allow preliminary comparison/searching/sorting on the basis of temperature.


14 : Maximum temperature
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 5.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The maximum air temperature known to exist in the cave, expressed in degrees Celcius (but omitting the degrees symbol). Comment: See comment in 13[Minimum temperature].


15 : Minimum humidity
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 6.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The minimum humidity percent humidity known to exist in the cave. Comment: This field is obviously too simplified to serve as an adequate scientific statement of a cave's humidity. Its purpose is to give an approximate guide and allow preliminary comparison/searching/sorting on the basis of humidity.


16 : Maximum humidity
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 6.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The maximum percent humidity known to exist in the cave. Comment: See comment under 15[Minimum humidity].


17 : Moisture level
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: A guide as to how wet or dry the cave is as a whole. Usage: If substantial areas of the cave depart from this average, then choose "wide moisture range".


18 : State in cave number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The component of a cave or karst feature number which identifies the country's State in which the cave is considered to be located. Usage: (1) In some cases a cave may straddle a State border. It is a matter for local policy to decide which State the cave is considered to be in, and whether any further entrances are considered to be in the same State or in their actual State, for cave number purposes. The 53[Comments] field can also be used to indicate their actual State. The cave's or entrances' locational fields would of course show their actual position. (2) State code is filled indirectly via the Lookup on 303[Area lookup] (3) The local codes for a country's States can be set in 286[State code], 287[State name], and 354[State abbreviation].


19 : Area in cave number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The component of the cave or karst feature number which identifies the area or region where the cave is located, and is unique within its parent State code. Comment: In deciding new area codes, it is best to avoid using the letters I and O as they can become confused with the adjacent numerical serial number component, and also with any numeric State code. Usage: Area codes are auto-filled via lookup on 303[Area lookup].


20 : Penetrability
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Whether this entrance is penetrable or not, including entry by diving.


21 : Latitude - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The latitude given not closer than the precision specified in 294[Coarse - geogr. precision] in order not to reveal the exact location. Expressed as +/- degrees.decimal degrees. Positive if north of or on the Equator, negative if south of the Equator. Comment: (1) Expression as a real number instead of deg:min simplifies location-based searches, and geo-coding in GIS systems. (2) Because grid references are discontinuous at grid-zone boundaries, lat/longs are needed to allow wide-area searches. They also allow finding the location using an ordinary atlas. (3) This field is available for where coarse latitude is not being auto-derived from the exact latitude in 245[Position - latitude]. (4) Max text length: sign(1)+whole(2)+sep(1)+dec(4)=total 8, scale 4.


22 : Longitude - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 9.4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The longitude given not closer than the precision specified in 294[Coarse - geogr. precision], in order not to reveal the exact location. Expressed as +/- degrees.decimal degrees. Positive if east of Greenwich or on the Prime Meridian, or negative if west of Greenwich or on the 180-degree meridian. Comment: (1) See comments in field 21[Latitude - coarse]. (2) Max text length: sign(1)+whole(3)+sep(1)+dec(4)=total 9, scale 4.


23 : Map sheet name - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The official name of the map or mapsheet used for giving a coarse grid reference for the cave or karst feature. Comment: (1) The map series to which this mapsheet belongs is given in 412[Coarse - map series] normally in the Site Parameters table. (2) Coarse locations are OK for publication or distribution studies, but not good enough to find the cave.


24 : Topo 100K sheet name
Entity: CA
Data type: Max length: 0 Coding: ? Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Replaced by 414[Map or sheet name], normally found in the grid references table.


25 : Gr.ref qualifier - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: A value used in order to distinguish between similar grid references on the one mapsheet when giving the coarse grid reference for a cave. Comment: The description of this grid reference qualifier is given in 413[Coarse - gr.ref qualifier], normally found in the site parameters table.


26 : Grid reference - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The approximate grid reference for this cave, given only to the coarse precision agreed as being suitable for publication, yet still reasonable for local distribution analyses. Expressed using the method described on the respective mapsheet, but omitting digits to achieve the required coarse precision. Comment: (1) The precision used is defined in 295[Coarse - gr.ref precision] in the site parameters table. (2) Accurate grid refs can be recorded in 241[Grid ref - easting] etc.


27 : Nearest locality
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The name of the village, locality or named geographical feature nearest to the cave or karst feature. Usage: Normally required only when lat/long and grid references are not available.


28 : Altitude - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 7.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The approximate altitude of this entrance of the cave, or of this karst feature, to a precision suitable for publication. Comment: The altitude units are set in 446[Coarse - altitude units], and its allowed precision in 526[Coarse altitude precision], both normally found in the site parameters table.


29 : Degree explored
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The degree to which this cave or karst feature has been explored. Usage: Where data is being stored per entrance as well as for the cave, this field should be completed only for the cave.


30 : Discoverer type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The type of event now being recorded about the original discovery or recording of this cave or karst feature. Example: It could be when the cave was first found, explored, or recorded. Usage: (1) This entry is mandatory if the discovery name or date fields are filled in. (2) These discovery fields are multi-valued, therefore the various discovery and first exploration and recording events can all be recorded if known. (3) The discovery of later extensions can be recorded in field 35[Extension discovery].


31 : Discoverer name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 45 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The name of the person(s) and/or organisation(s) who were involved in this original event for the cave or karst feature. The preferred formats are surname then initials for people, or initials without full stops for organisations. Comment: Ideally the value for this field would be shown on the screen simply by a link to 478[Person ID] or 380[Organisation ID] in the person or org databases, via links on the discovery fields for Person ID or Organisation ID. A 'names' field would then not be needed in the 'caves discovery' table at all. An actual field is needed in the caves-discovery table only when the database software does not allow such a link to the People or Organisations databases. Usage: Normally you would need to enter a value here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on Person or Organisation ID. - the person or organisation details were not available in a Person or Organisation database at this site.


32 : Discoverer day
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The day of the month of the respective discovery event, in the range 1-31. Usage: If unknown, leave blank.


33 : Discoverer month
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The month number of the respective discovery event, in the range 1-12. Usage: If unknown, leave blank.


34 : Discoverer year
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The year, in full, of the respective discovery event. Usage: If unknown, leave blank.


35 : Extension discovery
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 52 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Brief information about the discovery of a later extension to a cave, including extension name, discoverer name(s), and date. Examples: (1) Starburst Chamber: TCC, 26 Jan 1958. (2) Kelly's passage: Kelly J C & Downs X A, 13 June 1987. Usage: For multiple extensions, these are best entered in date order, earliest first. (Edit the value sequence numbers to alter the order.)


36 : Discoverer date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The full date of the respective discovery event, in database date format. Usage: Normally used only where a date-format field is wanted. Note that this field can accept only fully specified dates.


37 : Genus name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The genus name of a biological specimen found in the cave. Usage: (1) The accuracy of the genus identification should be indicated in 509[Genus confidence level]. (2) A Genus value can be entered only via a lookup table. This ensures that only valid and correctly spelt species can be entered, which aids later searching. To achieve this, the lookup table on this 37[Genus name] field allows loading of both the genus and the species values, with no separate lookup table for 38[Species name], except for allowing special species notations (See 38[Species name] help). (3) If your site also has a Specimen database as part of this system, then Genus/species can be automatically filled in via a lookup on the nearby 364[Specimen ID] field. (4) If a wanted Genus/species is missing from the Genus lookup table, please contact your database administrator to have it added.


38 : Species name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The species name of a biological specimen found in a cave. Usage: (1) The accuracy of the species identification should be indicated in the 510[Species confidence level] field. (2) If the Genus is known but the species is not, or, if it is a new species, then the correct notation can be entered by loading the Genus field with any species having the correct Genus in the Genus lookup table, then using the lookup table on this 38[Species name] field to overwrite the species with the correct notation. (3) If a wanted species is not in the Genus/species lookup table, please contact your database administrator to have it added.


39 : Species ref - surname
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 45 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The surname(s) and initials of the author(s) of a reference describing the occurrence. Otherwise, the surname and initials of the person identifying the species occurrence in the cave, or the name of the person whose collection is holding it. The format for an author should be: "surname, initials". Example: Brown, D.E. and McDougal, M.A. Usage: This field would normally only need to be filled in if the value could not be auto-filled via a lookup on the relevant Article ID in 263[Species ref - article ID], or on a specimen via 364[Specimen ID].


40 : Species significance
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Any special significance which this species occurrence in the cave or karst feature may have. Expressed as a coded value. Usage: This field would normally only need to be filled in if the value was not shown or auto-filled via a link to the relevant Specimen ID in 364[Specimen ID].


41 : Cave use
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The present use (if any) being made of the cave, or of this entrance if a multi-entrance cave. Comment: "wild tourist cave" in the value means a cave which is more or less in its wild state without added construction work for tourists, but is known to and accessible to the general public, as opposed to cavers, via some form of entry management or control.


42 : Owner type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The owner category for this particular entrance. Comment: (1) A multi-entrance cave could have several owner categories. (2) Ownership of normal public reserves should be stated as "govt owned" - the phrase "community owned" means joint possession and control by the community, and generally applies to tribal ownership.


43 : Damage
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The types of damage present in the cave.


44 : Management classifier
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 8 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The state-agreed initials or abbreviation for the organisation who has allocated the management classification to the cave. Usage: (1) Left blank if not formally classified. (2) Mandatory if 45[Management category] is completed. (3) If this field is completed, then 45[Management category] should also be completed.


45 : Management category
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The formal category into which the cave or karst feature has been placed by the management authority. Usage: (1) If a cave has more than one classification, or different parts of it are classified differently, then choose "multi-category" and give details in 53[Comments]. (2) If this field is completed, then 44[Management classifier] should also be completed.


46 : Protection methods
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The situation or measures which assist in the protection of the cave or karst feature.


47 : Controller
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 8 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The state-agreed initials of the controlling organisation. Comment: Normally omitted if controlled by a private owner or manager. Usage: If no per-trip permission is required, enter "nobody" (See pre-text, "entry permission from".)


48 : Importances
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Aspects for which this cave or karst feature is important, including the type(s) of any specific studies made in the cave. Usage: If studies have been performed, include them in the References database and cross-reference to them via cave field 270[Article ID].


49 : Surface use
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The present surface use(s) of the land in which this cave entrance or karst feature is located.


50 : Difficulties
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Unusual equipment, skills or activities which are unavoidable in a normal visit or reasonable exploration of the cave, rather than when pushing the cave to its limits.


51 : Prospects
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Indications which point to the likelihood of further extensions to the known cave being possible.


52 : Hazards
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Dangers which could be encountered in some parts of the cave or karst feature.


53 : Comments
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 62 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Comments lines about a cave or karst feature. Usage: (1) This field should be used only when a suitable more specific field is not available because (1) the comments cannot easily be displayed in various languages, and (2) its information is difficult to make use of in analyses and searches. (2) One valid use of Comments is for qualifying an entry in another field or for specifying a field value choice which was not available. (3) Each field value is one line of the overall comments. (4) Use semicolons (;) between separate comments.


54 : Percent mapped
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The approximate percentage of the known extent of the cave which has been mapped. Usage: Do not include the % symbol.


55 : Map source - org code
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The standard 3-letter organisation code for the organisation which produced the map which is being referenced for the cave or karst feature. Comment: See Comment in field 264[Map sequence number]. Usage: You would normally need to enter this value only when: - the information was not auto-filled by the lookup on 265[Map ID], or - the map details were not available in a map database on the site.


56 : Length
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The aggregate length of the cave or karst feature in metres. Usage: (1) The method used should be indicated in 57[Length method]. (2) Dimensions which are better described as horizontal extent can be entered in 67[Extent length] and 68[Extent width]. (3) When caves join, or when there is more than one numbered entrance, the total length should be recorded only in the nominated "cave" record, not in any entrance records.


57 : Length method
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The method used in arriving at the stated length of a cave or karst feature. Usage: This field should always be used when 56[Length] is completed, but not if it is empty.


58 : Length accuracy
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The accuracy of the stated length of a cave or karst feature, stated in +/- metres. Example: If the length is between 510 and 520 metres, then the length should be given as 515 and the value of this field as 5, i.e. 515m +/-5m.


59 : Extent below entrance
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The vertical distance the cave extends below the lowest point of this entrance, in metres. Usage: (1) If only the overall vertical range is known, or if this is a karst feature, use 511[Vertical extent] instead of this field. (2) If the entrance is in a karst feature, such as a doline, the entrance is taken to be where the cave leaves the profile of the karst feature. (3) If this field is completed, then 61[Vertical method] should be completed, and also 62[Vertical accuracy] if possible. (4) Any underwater depth, if known, should be included. The depth to the watertable can be shown in 53[Comments], e.g. "wtable -50m;"


60 : Extent above entrance
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The vertical distance the cave extends above the lowest point of this entrance, in metres. Usage: See notes in 59[Extent below entrance].


61 : Vertical method
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The method used in arriving at the stated vertical dimensions of the cave or karst feature. Usage: This field should always be completed if any of the vertical dimension fields have been completed, but not otherwise.


62 : Vertical accuracy
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 7.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The accuracy of the stated vertical dimensions of the cave or karst feature, stated in +/- metres. Example: If the vertical range was calculated or estimated to be between 70 and 80 metres, then the vertical range should be stated as 75 and this field as 5, i.e. 75m +/-5m.


63 : Length of largest chamber
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The length of the largest chamber in a cave, in metres. Usage: Normally completed only for a chamber of notable size.


64 : Width of largest chamber
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The width of the largest chamber in a cave, in metres. Usage: Normally completed only for a chamber of notable size.


65 : Height of largest chamber
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The height of the largest chamber in a cave, in metres. Usage: Normally completed only for a chamber of notable size.


66 : Pitches
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 7.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: All pitch lengths (not rope or ladder lengths) in a cave, in metres, and listed nominally in sequence from upper to lower level.


67 : Extent length
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The maximum overall horizontal extent of a cave or karst feature, in metres, i.e. the straight-line horizontal distance between its furthermost ends. Comment: When combined with 68[Extent width] it forms the length of the smallest horizontal rectangle which would just encompass the cave or karst feature.


68 : Extent width
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The maximum overall horizontal width of a cave or karst feature, in metres, the width being measured in a direction at right angles to the dimension recorded in 67[Extent length]. Comment: See comment in 67[Extent length].


69 : Other names
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 52 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Further names which a cave or karst feature has or has had beyond its current name as given in 70[Principal name], and expressed in the local language. Usage: See usage notes in 70[Principal name].


70 : Principal name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 52 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The current formal agreed name for a cave or karst feature, expressed in the local language. Usage: (1) When choosing new names, be mindful of any local naming guidelines which may be in effect. (2) Where a new name is awaiting ratification, enclose it in round brackets. (3) Because this recorded name is likely to be propagated, take special care to record it with the correct spelling and form. (4) If you want the word "cave" or the like to appear in the name, include it in the field.


71 : Ref - surnames
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 45 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The surname and initials of the author(s) of a reference which is relevant to the cave or karst feature, expressed as "surname, initials". Examples: "Smith, A.B., Brown, Y.L. & White, X.A.", "Smith, A.B.", "White, X.A. et al". Usage: (1) Normally only needs to be filled in when the author surname(s) cannot be auto-filled via a lookup on 270[Article ID]. (2) If the article does not yet exist in the Articles tables, enter the surname(s) manually. (3) If more than three authors, just enter the first author and initials, plus "et al".


72 : Contents
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: What the cave contains. Comment: The purpose of this field is to be the 'plain language guide' to what is in the cave by summarising any entries in scientific fields such as 37[Genus name], and listing any other items which do not have a formal classification system. Usage: (1) If any 'scientific' field has a contents entry, include an entry in this field also, so that this field summarises ALL contents. (2) If a required entry in not available in the picklist, enter it in 53[Comments] instead. (3) In the case of sensitive items, consider including them in the database but flagging their security level in 467[Data security level] or suppressing this field from printing via 75[Cave list exclusion FID].


74 : Cross-reference serial
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The serial number component of the number of other connected caves, entrances or other karst features. Usage: (1) Usage will depend to some extent on how cave and karst feature numbers have been used, for example, whether further entrances to a cave have their own number. See the Australian 'Local help' for examples of one method.


75 : Cave list exclusion FID
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 6 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The FID of a field for this cave which is to be excluded from the output for a Cave List. Comment: (1) This would normally be because the field has the same value for all caves in the area, and the value can therefore better be covered for Cave List purposes in the overall Area Description. Examples could be 7[Rock type] or 42[Owner type]. (2) However where the issue is security, see 467[Data security level]. Usage: Enter the FID of each field for this cave which does have data in it but whose data is not to be printed out in a Cave List. The technique is to record this common or almost common data instead in the Region/Area entity, so that it can appear in the area notes preceding the cave details, and then not print it in the individual cave details. Any caves which are an exception to the norm for the area can omit suppression of that particular field so that their different data does get printed in the individual listings. However, note that this common data DOES still need to be entered into every cave's data. This is so that each cave's data is complete in itself, and the cave will respond correctly to a search looking for those characteristics. Fields which are usually candidates for suppression are: 7, 21, 22, 23, 414, 25, 26, 27, 28, 42, 49, 46, 47, 78, 13-16, 71/270, 76/431. Fields which normally should not be suppressed are: 18, 19, 77, 1, 69/70, 74, 9, 10/20/3/4/5/6, 11, 56, 57/58, 59/60/511, 61/62, 63/64/65, 66, 67/68, 52, 50, 29, 51. This field should normally be re-assessed at each update.


76 : Latest update by
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 40 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The first name, surname, and organisation of the person who most recently provided the update data for the database for this cave or karst feature, together with the date they supplied the information, as opposed to the date the original information was generated. Usage: (1) The entry should refer only to this latest update, because the system keeps track of previous updates. (2) It is good practice when supplying particular updates to review other data for the cave to see if it is still correct. Comments: (1) This field would normally only be available for users to enter a value if the database system was not using the fields available for capturing information about each update batch. (2) Normally this field would be read-only information. (3) A better alternative to this field is to use 431[Latest update ID], which derives from 421-424, which allow separate fields for Update ID, person, org, and date. (4) For the supplier of the original information itself, see 470[Data supplier - person ID] and/or 471[Data supplier - org ID] in the Data Quality fields.


77 : Serial in cave number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 11 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The component of the Cave Number, within the given area code, which identifies the cave. Normally numeric. Does not repeat within that area code. Right-justified if numeric. Usage: (1) Do not include any karst feature letter suffix in the field.


78 : Entrance marking
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The type of identification marked on this particular entrance or karst feature. Usage: (1) If the mark is not the cave or entrance number, but some other identifying mark from say a surface survey or surface exploration, choose from codes 12-18, i.e. 'identifier' rather than cave/entrance number. (2) If more than one type of marking is present, choose the best.


220 : Country in cave number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The component in the cave number which identifies the country in which the cave is located, expressed as a standard two-letter ISO country code. Usage: This country code is filled indirectly via the lookup on 303[Area lookup].


227 : Cave ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The unique database key for a cave record. It consists of the concatenation of the ISO 2-letter country code of the creating organisation, their 3-letter organisation code, and a right-justified integer serial number, zero-filled to the standard width for the entity as given in Field 134[Numeric width in keys]. Example: 35th cave for ASF in Australia: AU+ASF+00035 ==> AUASF00035 The numeric width for caves is 5 digits, hence 35 ==> 00035 Comments: (1) This ID is normally used only within a database system. (2) It is originally generated by the site creating the original record, and is retained regardless of where the record is subsequently copied to, in order to maintain the correct links between relational tables. (3) It is not the same as the "International Cave Number", which is the published national cave number, prefixed with the 2-letter country code.


228 : Owner - person ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The unique record ID of the owner of the cave or karst feature, if it is a person as opposed to an organisation. Usage: (1) If it is an organisation rather than a person, use Field 417[Owner - organisation ID] instead. (2) If there are no record IDs available, enter the name of the person or organisation in Field 418[Owner - name].


229 : Local government area
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The name of the municipality or local-government area in which the cave or karst feature is located. Comment: This is the area based on administration or government, typically by a local council, as opposed to the area name based on land definition as found in the cadastre. Example: "Surfcoast Shire"


230 : Update status
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The degree to which the database is up to date for this cave or karst feature, as opposed to the amount of data stored. Numeric coded using the codes of generic field 512[Entity update status].


231 : Previous country
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The country code in any previous cave number which this cave may have had. The country code is the 2-letter code according to international standard ISO-3166. See also 220[Country in cave number]. Usage: This field is filled indirectly via the lookup on 304[Previous area lookup].


232 : Previous state
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The State code in any previous cave number which this cave may have had. See also 18[State in cave number]. Usage: This field is filled indirectly via the lookup on 304[Previous area lookup].


233 : Previous area
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The area code in any previous cave number which this cave may have had. See also 19[Area in cave number]. Usage: This field is filled indirectly via the lookup on 304[Previous area lookup].


234 : Previous serial
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The serial number in any previous cave number which this cave may have had. See also 77[Serial in cave number].


235 : Cross-reference country
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The country component in the number of any cave or karst feature which is associated with this cave or karst feature. See also 220[Country in cave number] re country. See also 74[Cross-reference serial] re cross-referencing issues. Usage: This country code is filled indirecly via the lookup on 305[Cross-reference lookup].


236 : Cross-reference state
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The State code in the number of any cave or karst feature associated with this cave or karst feature. Usage: This field is filled indirectly via the lookup on 305[Cross-reference lookup]. See also 18[State in cave number] re state code issues. See also 74[Cross-reference serial] re cross-reference issues.


237 : Cross-reference area
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The area code in the number of any cave or karst feature associated with this cave or karst feature. Usage: This field is filled indirectly via the lookup on 305[Cross-reference lookup]. See also 19[Area in cave number] re area code issues. See also 74[Cross-reference serial] re cross-reference issues.


238 : Grid ref - map scale
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The scale of the map sheet used for giving the current grid reference of the cave, omitting the leading "1:". Example: 25000. Comment: Its field properties are the same as those for 205[Map scale] for that sheet. Usage: (1) Normally auto-supplied when you use the lookup on the Map ID, 411[Grid ref - map ID]. (2) This field needs to be actually filled in only when the map is not already in the site's map table, or the information is not otherwise automatically available via a lookup on the Map ID.


239 : Grid ref - map number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 25 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The official map number of the map used for giving the current grid reference of the cave or karst feature. Example: 4324 Comment: To qualify the grid reference, the Map Number can be used in place of the normal Grid Zone Designation and 100km-square pair of letters. Usage: (1) Normally auto-supplied when you use the lookup on the Map ID, 411[Grid ref - map ID] on this screen. (2) This field needs to be actually filled in only when the map is not already in the site's map table, or the information is not otherwise automatically available via a lookup on the Map ID.


240 : Grid ref - map edition
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 8 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The edition identification for the map which has been used for the current grid reference for the cave or karst feature.


241 : Grid ref - easting
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 6.0 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The easting part of a grid reference for a cave or karst feature, as shown on a particular map, and expressed in the manner described on that map. Comment: The purpose of this field is to locate the item on the associated mapsheet, not to give its actual physical position. The actual position can be given using 249[Position - easting]. Usage: The associated mapsheet used should be given using 411[Grid ref - map ID], or if the map description is not yet in the site's database, using 239[Map number] and 414[Map or sheet name], on the grid ref screen. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(6)+sep(0)+dec(0) = total 6, scale 0


242 : Grid ref - northing
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 6.0 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The northing part of a grid reference for a cave or karst feature, as shown on a particular map, and expressed in the manner described on that map. Comment: The purpose of this field is to locate the item on the associated mapsheet, not to give its actual physical position. The actual position can be given using 250[Position - northing]. Usage: As for Easting, 241[Grid ref - easting]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(6)+sep(0)+dec(0) = total 6, scale 0.


243 : Grid ref - units
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The length units in which the grid reference for a cave or karst feature have been given, which should be the same as those of the associated topographic map used, but expressed as a UIS coded value.


244 : Grid ref - precision used
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 7.0 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The +/- precision used in the grid reference values given in the "grid reference" fields, 241[Grid ref - easting] and 242[Grid ref - northing], for the cave or karst feature, and expressed in the same length units as that grid reference. Example: If the map units are metres, and the grid reference has been specified to the nearest +/- 1 km, then the precision would be given as "1000". Comment: The precision is how closely (number of significant digits) the grid ref has been expressed, not necessarily how accurate (true) its value is. Its accuracy can be given in field 302[Grid ref - accuracy used]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(7)+sep(0)+dec(0) = total 7, scale 0.


245 : Position - latitude
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 11.7 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The exact latitude of this cave entrance or karst feature, expressed as +/- degrees and decimal degrees. The sign is +ve if north of or on the Equator, or -ve if south of the Equator. Comment: Expression as a real number, rather than as degress, minutes, and seconds, simplifies location-based searches, and the geo-coding of the position in GIS systems. Example: -38.38274 Usage: The Geodetic Datum on which the latitude is based can be given in 288[Geodetic Datum used]. Max text length: sign(1)+whole(2)+sep(1)+dec(7) = total 11, scale 7.


246 : Position - longitude
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 12.7 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The exact longitude of this cave entrance or karst feature, expressed as +/- degrees and decimal degrees. The sign is +ve if east of Greenwich or on the Prime Meridian, or -ve if west of Greenwich or on the 180th meridian. Comment: Expression as a real number, rather than as degrees, minutes, and seconds, simplifies location-based searches, and the geo-coding of the position in GIS systems. Example: 143.38543 Usage: The Geodetic Datum on which the longitude has been based can be given in 288[Geodetic Datum used]. Max text length: sign(1)+whole(3)+sep(1)+dec(7) = total 12, scale 7.


247 : Position - grid zone
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The Universal Transverse Mercator Grid Zone in which the cave or karst feature lies. Example: "55" for Grid Zone 55. Comment: (1) The Grid Zone is required in order to qualify full co-ordinate eastings and northings. (2) Sometimes the north-south Grid Zone letter is also included (giving a Grid Zone Designation of e.g. 55H), but this letter is not actually needed when full co-ordinates are given. (3) Sometimes a map sheet number is given instead of a Grid Zone in order to make a set of co-ordinates unique within a country, e.g. using 248[Position - sheet number].


248 : Position - sheet number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The map sheet number used in order to qualify a set of eastings and northings, instead of using a Grid Zone Designation for this purpose. Comment: However, Grid Zones are more internationally useful for this purpose. Example: In Australia, the 4-figure sheet number for the relevant 1:100 000 sheet is commonly used to make a set of grid co-ordinates unique within the country.


249 : Position - easting
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The full easting co-ordinate value for the actual ground position of this cave entrance or karst feature. Comment: This is an actual ground position as opposed to a position shown on a particular mapsheet, e.g. in 241[Grid ref - easting]. Example: 497346.623 (for an easting of 497,346.623 metres). Usage: The units for the co-ordinate value should be as specified in 251[Position - grid ref units]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(6)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 10, scale 3.


250 : Position - northing
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 12.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The full northing co-ordinate value for the actual ground position of this cave entrance or karst feature. Comment: This is an actual ground position as opposed to a position shown on a particular mapsheet, e.g. in 242[Grid ref - northing]. Example: 6852369.432 (for a northing of 6,852,369.432 metres). Usage: The units for the co-ordinate value should be as specified in field 251[Position - grid ref units]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(8)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 12, scale 3.


251 : Position - grid ref units
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The length units in which the full easting and northing positional co-ordinates have been given, expressed as a coded value.


252 : Position - gref precision
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The +/- precision of the stated full easting and northing positional co-ordinates, expressed in the same length units as the co-ordinates. Example: An easting stated as 497 300 metres could have a precision of 100, 10 or 1 metre. The actual value needs to be stated. Comment: The precision says nothing about the accuracy of the stated position. Its accuracy should be stated in 300[Position - gref accuracy]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(6)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 10, scale 3.


253 : Fourth-smallest land unit
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The official name of the cadastral land unit in which this cave or karst feature is located, this land unit being the 4th smallest in the cadastral hierarchy. Example: In the hierarchy from smallest to largest of : allotment, section, parish, county, and state, this field would contain the name of the "county" where the cave was located, e.g. Tambo, for the County of Tambo. Comments: (1) The names of the various land unit types forming the hierarchy, e.g. County here, are defined in the Site Parameters using the multi-valued field, 293[Land unit name]. (2) These land units are distinct from "local government" or municipal subdivisions, such as shires or cities.


254 : Third-smallest land unit
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The official name of the cadastral land unit within which this cave or karst feature is located, this unit being the 3rd smallest in the cadastral hierarchy. Example: In the hierarchy from smallest to largest of: allotment, section, parish, county, and state, this field would contain the name of the "parish" where the cave was located. For example, "Buchan" for the Parish of Buchan within the County of Tambo. Comment: These land units are distinct from "local government" or municipal subdivisions, such as shires or cities.


255 : Second-smallest land unit
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The official name of the 2nd-smallest cadastral land unit within which this cave or karst feature is located. Example: In the cadastral hierarchy from smallest to largest of: allotment, section, parish, county, and state, this field would contain the name or designation of the "section" where the cave was located. For example, "F" for Section F within the Parish of Buchan. Comment: (1) The names forming the land unit hierarchy, e.g. "section" in this example, are defined in the database site parameters using Field 293[Land unit names]. (2) These cadastral land units are distinct from "local government" or municipal subdivisions, such as shires, or cities.


256 : Smallest land unit
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The designation of the smallest separately identifiable cadastral land parcel in which this cave entrance or karst feature is located. See also 255[Second-smallest land unit]. Example: "21a" for Crown Allotment 21a.


257 : Directions to find cave
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 62 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: One line of the directions on how to get to the cave entrance or karst feature. As many lines as necessary may be used. Usage: Normally a narrative of how to find the cave, starting from an a readily found point. The cave's locational co-ordinates should be recorded elsewhere.


258 : Access status
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The situation regarding any restrictions on access to the cave.


259 : Other cave IDs
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: Any database internal record IDs this cave has had in other database sytems. Example: If data for this cave had also been generated in VSA's database in Australia, then one of its "Other cave IDs" in this database here might be "AUVSA00516". Usage: This is normally a read-only field for informational purposes only. It would normally be completed only by the central database administrator.


260 : Species ref - year
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The publication year in full for a reference or identification of a species occurrence in the cave or karst feature. Example: 1964 Usage: See Usage note in 39[Species ref - surname].


261 : Species ref - year suffix
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The year suffix for a reference for a species occurrence in the cave where it is necessary to distinguish between references which have the same author(s) and year. Comment: This is normally necessary only when producing a particular reference list, and it may vary per reference list. Example: "a" or "b" in the case 1964a and 1964b for the same author(s) Usage: See usage note in 39[Species ref - surname].


262 : Species ref - comment
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 25 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: A comment related to a reference or an identification of a species occurrence in the cave or karst feature. Usage: See Usage comment in 40[Species significance].


263 : Species ref - article ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 11 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The internal Article ID in the Articles database for a reference for a species occurrence in the cave. Usage: If an Articles database is part of the system, this field would be auto-filled by a lookup on the Articles database. This lookup might also auto-fill other nearby Species Ref fields.


264 : Map sequence number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The serial number part of a cave map number, that map having been referenced for this cave or karst feature. Example: For a map number of Australian cave 3B-16 equal to AU3B16.VSA245, this field would be "245", the map serial number. Comment: (1) This cave database field reflects the value of field 201[Map sequence number] in the map database. (2) Ideally the value for this field would be shown on the screen simply by a link to 201[Map sequence number] in the map database, via the Map ID field on this screen. A [Map sequence number] field would then not be needed in this "Widest map" table in the cave database. An actual field is needed in the cave database only when the database software does not allow such a linkage to the map database. (3) The field should be right-justified to aid sorting - it is an alpha field rather than numeric in order that letters can also be included if desired. Usage: Normally you would need to enter a value here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on the Map ID, or - the map details were not available in a map database at this site.


265 : Map ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The database internal record ID of a map which has been referenced as giving an extensive coverage of this cave or karst feature, even though it may not be the most accurate map available of the cave. Usage: If the details of the map have not yet been entered into the map tables, then no ID will be available for lookup, so instead, enter the map's details in the other fields nearby. Similarly if there is no map database on this site.


266 : Ref - year of publication
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The publication year in full for a reference which has been cited for this cave or karst feature. Example: 1987 Usage: See usage notes 1 & 2 in 71[Ref - surnames].


267 : Ref - suffix to year
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The year suffix for a reference cited for this cave or karst feature where it is necessary to distinguish between references which have the same author and year. Comment: This is normally necessary only when producing a particular reference list, and it may vary per reference list. Normally its value is not known until the reference list has been completed. Example: "a" or "b" in the case 1964a and 1964b for the same authors. Usage: See usage notes 1 & 2 in 71[Ref - surnames].


268 : Ref - subjects
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 25 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The subject(s) addressed in a reference cited for this cave or karst feature, expressed as key words separated by commas. Comment: The purpose is to give some quick guidance as to the relevance of the article. Examples: (1) "bones". (2) "habitation, artifacts".


269 : Ref - relevant page range
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The relevant page number range in a reference cited for this cave or karst feature. Examples: (1) "112-7". (2) "27, 30-4, 120".


270 : Article ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 11 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The database internal record ID in the Articles database for a reference cited for this cave or karst feature. Blank if the article is not yet in the Articles database but the details are available for the cave database entry. Usage: This field would normally be auto-filled by a lookup on the Articles database, which might at the same time auto-fill other cave references fields on the screen.


297 : Length category
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The broad length grouping to which the cave belongs, expressed as a coded value ranging from 0 to 9, 0 meaning of unknown category. Comment: (1) These categories are based on those currently being used in the Austrian cave database system. (2) Benefits of this field include (1) often enabling a cave to be length-classified before the actual length is known, (2) reducing length updating load in national/central databases where the latest actual length is stored with the local club, (3) forming part of a convenient size category field 528[Size category] which concatenates 297[Length category] and 527[Depth category].


300 : Position - gref accuracy
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The +/- accuracy of the stated full easting and northing positional co-ordinates, expressed in the same length units as the co-ordinates. Example: An easting stated as 497 300 metres could have an accuracy ranging from + or - hundreds of metres down to + or - 1 metre. The accuracy needs to be stated. Comment: The accuracy says nothing about the precision with which the value has been stated. Its precision should be stated in 252[Position - gref precision]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(6)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 10, scale 3.


302 : Grid ref - accuracy used
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 7.0 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The +/- accuracy of the grid reference values given for the cave or karst feature in the "grid ref" fields, 241[Grid ref - easting] and 242[Grid ref - northing], and expressed in the same length units as that grid reference. Example: If the map units are metres, and the accuracy of the given grid reference is +/- 50m, then enter the accuracy as "50". Comment: The accuracy is how close the given value is to the true value, not how precisely (number of significant digits) it has been expressed. The precision can be given in 244[Grid ref - precision used]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(7)+sep(0)+dec(0) = total 7, scale 0.


303 : Area lookup
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 7 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: An auxiliary field to aid using a lookup table for a cave area. To make it unique it concatenates country+state+area codes. See also 223[Area designation], which is the lookup for this field.


304 : Previous area lookup
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 7 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: An auxiliary field to aid the use of an area code lookup for 'previous cave numbers'. To make it unique it concatenates country+state+area codes. See also 223[Area designation], which is the lookup for this field.


305 : Cross-reference lookup
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 7 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: An auxiliary field to aid the use of an area lookup table on Cross-references. To make it unique it concatenates country+state+area codes. See also 223[Area designation], which is the lookup for this field.


355 : Ref - name of article
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 132 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The article name of a reference cited for this cave or karst feature. Usage: See usage notes 1 & 2 in 71[Ref - surnames].


356 : Ref - name of publication
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 132 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The name of a publication cited for this cave or karst feature. Usage: (1) For serial publications, use the local standard abbreviations. (2) See also usage notes 1 & 2 in 71[Ref - surnames].


357 : Ref - volume number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 7 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The volume number of a publication cited for this cave or karst feature, without any punctuation. Comment: Any punctuation will be added during output presentation. Usage: See usage notes 1 & 2 in 71[Ref - surnames].


358 : Ref - issue number
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The issue number, normally within a volume, of a publication cited for this cave or karst feature, but without any punctuation. Comment: Any punctuation will be provided during output presentation. Example: "3" in the case of a volume and issue of 5(3). Usage: See usage notes 1 & 2 in 71[Ref - surnames].


359 : Map or sheet name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The name of the map, or sheet of a map, which has been referenced for this cave or karst feature. Comment: (1) This cave database field reflects the value of field 202[Map or sheet name] in the map database. (2) See also Comment (2) in field 264[Map sequence number]. Usage: Normally you would need to enter a value here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on the Map ID, or - the map details are not available in a map database at this site.


360 : Map & survey grade org
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The initials of the organisation whose survey and mapping grades have been used to grade the map which has been referenced for this cave or karst feature. Comment: (1) This cave database field reflects the value of field 203[Map and survey grade org] from the map database. (2) See also Comment (2) in field 264[Map sequence number]. Usage: Normally you would need to enter a value here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on the Map ID, or - the map details are not available in a map database at this site.


361 : Map & survey grade value
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 8 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The survey and mapping grade of a map which has been referenced for this cave or karst feature. Comment: (1) This cave database field reflects the value of field 204[Map & survey grade value] from the map database. (2) See also Comment (2) in field 264[Map sequence number]. Usage: Normally you would need to enter a value here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on the Map ID, or - the map details are not available in a map database at this site.


362 : Map scale
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The scale of a map which has been referenced for this cave or karst feature, and expressed as the ground distance of the "representative fraction". Example: For a map of scale 1:1000, the value would be 1000. Comment: (1) This cave database field reflects the value of field 205[Map scale] from the map database. (2) See also Comment (2) in field 264[Map sequence number]. Usage: Normally you would need to enter a value here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on the Map ID, or - the map details are not available in a map database at this site.


363 : Dates of surv/issue/amend
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 15 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: A combined textual statement of the three main dates related to a map which has been referenced for this cave or karst feature, namely, survey date, map issue date, and date of latest map amendment. A forward slash separates the three components. Examples: 1977/79/83B, 1977/in prep 79. Comment: (1) This cave database temporary field reflects the value of fields 207[Map survey year], 401[Map issue year] and 273[[Map update year] for this map from the map database. It will be replaced by three equivalent cave database fields. (2) See also Comment (2) in field 264[Map sequence number]. Usage: (1) Normally you would need to enter values here only if: - the information was not autofilled by your lookup on the Map ID, or - the map details are not available in a map database at this site. (2) This is an informal text entry; year-only is sufficient for date, but include century in the first date; if surveyed but not yet issued, replace issued date by "in prep" + year, if appropriate; amendment letter or number can follow the amendment date.


364 : Specimen ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The database internal record ID in the Specimen table which corresponds to this specimen from this cave or karst feature. Comment: This is the internal database key, as distinct from any published Specimen Number. Usage: This field would normally be auto-filled by a lookup on the Specimen database, which might at the same time also auto-fill other 'species found' fields.


365 : Special land parcel
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The name of the smallest land parcel where the cave or karst feature is located, for the case where the parcel nomenclature is not normal. Example: If the normal nomenclature at this level was "allotment number", but the cave was not in an allotment but in a special reserve, then the entry here might be "Buchan Caves Reserve", instead of using the typical allotment number field, 256[Smallest land unit].


411 : Grid ref - map ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The site's UIS standard internal record ID for the map sheet upon which this grid reference is based. Example: AUASF04567. Usage: (1) If no map sheet records are yet available in the database for reference, the following alternative identifying fields can be filled in: 239[Map number], 238[Map scale], and 414[Map or sheet name]. (2) If map sheet records are available in the database but the software has no link from 411 to auto-display the above three fields, then their value can be auto-supplied instead via the lookup on 411.


414 : Grid ref - map name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The official name of the map or mapsheet used for giving the respective grid reference for the cave or karst feature. Usage: (1) Normally auto-supplied when you use the lookup on the Map ID, 411[Grid ref - map ID] on this screen. (2) This field needs to be actually filled in only when the map is not already in the site's map table, or the information is not otherwise automatically available via a lookup on the Map ID.


417 : Owner - organisation ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 9 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The unique record ID of the owner of the cave or karst feature, if it is an organisation as opposed to a person. Usage: (1) If it is a person rather than an organisation, use Field 228[Owner - person ID] instead. (2) If no record IDs are available, enter the name of the person or organisation in Field 418[Owner - name].


418 : Owner - name
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 60 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The name of the person or organisation which owns the cave or karst feature. Usage: Normally this field would be included in the database only when the name is not available via a link to the owner record ID, i.e. to 228[Owner - person ID] or to 417[Owner - organisation ID].


419 : Discoverer - person ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The database internal record ID of a person in the Person database associated with the respective discovery event for the cave or karst feature. Usage: (1) If the details of the person have not yet been entered into the linked Person database on this site, then no ID will be available for lookup, so enter the person's name in the nearby Name field instead. Similarly if there is no Person database on this site. (2) If more than one person is involved in this discovery event, then add a separate record for each person.


420 : Discoverer - org ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 9 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The database internal record ID of an organisation in the Organisation database associated with the respective discovery event for the cave or karst feature. Usage: (1) If the details of the organisation have not yet been entered into the linked Organisation database on this site, then no ID will be available for lookup, so enter the Organisation initials in the nearby Name field instead. Similarly if there is no linked Organisation database on this site. (2) If more than one organisation is involved in this discovery event, and they are not covered in the person record(s), then add extra records until all organisations are included.


431 : Latest update ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The database internal record ID of the most recent update batch applied to this cave. Comment: (1) This field is normally not completed by a user but is auto- updated when Update Batch information is captured. (2) Similar fields exist for other entities, such as maps.


432 : Latest update - person
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 25 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The full name of the person who provided the most recent batch of updates applied to the cave, as opposed to the person who did the data entry or the person who provided the original information. Comment: This field would normally be included only when the information could not be provided via the Update ID.


433 : Latest update - org code
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The standard 3-letter organisation code for the org which provided the most recent batch of updated information applied to this cave. Comment: This field would normally be used only when the organisation information could not be shown via a link to the Update ID.


434 : Latest update - date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The supply date of the most recent batch of update information applied to this cave, as opposed to the data entry date or to the validity date of individual fields. Comment: This field is normally included only when the date can not be shown via a link to the Update ID.


435 : Latest key-in ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The database internal record ID of the most recent data entry session which included this cave. Comment: (1) This field is normally not completed by a user but is auto-updated when Key-in Batch information is captured.


436 : Latest key-in - person
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 25 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The full name of the person who performed the most recent data entry session for this cave. Comment: This field would normally be included only when the information could not be provided via the Key-in ID.


437 : Latest key-in start date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The start date of the most recent data entry session which included this cave. Comment: This field would normally be included only when this information could not be provided via the Key-in ID.


439 : Land unit - coarse
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The smallest readily identifiable land unit in which the cave or karst feature is located, and which does not compromise the location of the cave if published. Example: In the State of Victoria in Australia, the "Parish" is the smallest common land unit, therefore this field would contain the name of the Parish in which the cave was located. Comment: The name of the land unit series used should be specified in Field 440 in the Site Parameters.


441 : Fifth-smallest land unit
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The official name for the 5th-smallest cadastral land unit type in which the cave is located. See Field 255[Second-smallest land unit] Comment: Multi-valued Field 293[Land unit name] should be used to record the names of the different land unit types.


442 : Altitude
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 10.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The accurate altitude of the lowest point of this cave entrance or karst feature where it leaves the profile of the surface. Usage: The units can be stated in 443[Altitude - units], and the Height Datum can be given in 516[Height Datum used]. Max text length: sign(1)+whole(5)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 10, scale 3.


443 : Altitude - units
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The length units in which the exact altitude has been given, expressed as a coded value.


444 : Altitude - precision +/-
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The +/- precision of the accurate altitude, 442[Altitude], expressed in the same units as the altitude. Example: An altitude stated as 1500m could be at a precision of 100, 10, or 1 metre. Its actual precision needs to be stated. Comment: The precision is how closely (number of significant digits) the altitude has been expressed, not necessarily how accurate (true) the value is. The accuracy can be given in 445[Altitude - accuracy +/-]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(4)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 8, scale 3.


445 : Altitude - accuracy +/-
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The +/- accuracy of the 'exact position' altitude stated in field 442[Altitude] and expressed in the same units as that altitude value. Example: An altitude stated as 1500m could be accurate to 100, 10, or 1 metre. The actual accuracy needs to be stated. Comment: The accuracy is how close the given value is to the true value, not how precisely (number of significant digits) it has been expressed. The precision can be given in 444[Altitude - precision +/-] Max text length: sign(0)+whole(4)+sep(1)+dec(3) = total 8, scale 3.


447 : Data awaits uploading
Entity: CA
Data type: Logical Max length: 1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Flag to show whether further updates have been made since the last upload to a more central level. True = upload needed. Usage: This field would normally be automatically updated by the system.


448 : Latest key-in end date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The finish date of the latest data entry session which included this cave. Comment: This field would normally be included only when the information could not be provided via the Key-in ID.


456 : Latest upload ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The database internal record ID of the most recent upload to a more central system which included this cave. Comment: This field is normally not completed by a user but is auto-updated when Upload information is captured.


457 : Latest upload - person
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 25 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The full name of the person who prepared the most recent upload which included this cave. Comment: This field would normally be included only when the information was not available via the Upload ID.


458 : Latest upload - org code
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: L Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The standard 3-letter Organisation Code of the organisation which prepared the most recent upload which included this cave. Comment: This field would normally be included only when the information was not available via the Upload ID.


459 : Latest upload - date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The date on which the most recent upload which included this cave was prepared. Comment: This field would normally be included only when the information was not available via the Upload ID.


460 : Field ID updated
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The Field ID of an updated field which has been included in a data upload to a more central system. Comment: (1) This field is not entered by a user, but is auto-filled by the system. (2) It is used for attributing updates per stakeholder organisation.


461 : Values qty before upload
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The quantity of values present in a given field for a cave prior to a data upload containing updates by a specific organisation for the field. Comment: (1) This field is not filled in by a user but by the system. (2) It is used when attributing updates to stakeholder organisations.


462 : Values qty after upload
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The quantity of values present in a given field for a cave after a data upload containing updates by a specific organisation for the field. Comment: (1) This field is not filled in by a user but by the system. (2) It is used when attributing updates to stakeholder organisations.


463 : Qty of new/changed values
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The quantity of values in a field which are new or changed after a data upload. It is separately recorded for a given cave, upload, and updating organisation. Example: (1) 1 for an updated or newly completed single-valued field. (2) 3 if 3 values among those in a multi-valued field are new since the upload. Comment: (1) This field is not filled in by a user but by the system. (2) It is used when attributing updates to stakeholder organisations.


464 : Value ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Integer (short) Max length: 5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The internal ID for an instance of a field value. Its format is an integer taken from a separate series per site + entity instance + field. Example: A multi-valued field for a given cave at a given database site would have its own Value ID series. Comment: (1) This ID is used for identifying a particular field value, for example when describing its data quality. (2) It is required only for multi-valued fields or MV field groups because values of single-valued fields can be identified by their 421[Update ID]. Usage: This field is not entered by the user but is auto-filled by the system.


465 : Data source type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The type of source from which the data value was obtained, with regard to how close to or removed from the original data the supplier was, expressed as a coded value. The supplier is the person identified in 470[Data supplier - person ID] or the organisation identified in 471[Data supplier - org ID]. Example: It might have been first hand information for that person, or it might have been read in a publication.


466 : Data confidence level
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The likelihood that the data value is correct, expressed as a coded value.


467 : Data security level
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The degree to which this data value can be released or published, expressed as a coded value.


468 : Data - reference ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 11 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The database internal record ID from the References database which identifies the principal reference upon which the data value was based, if any.


469 : Type of update
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: Whether this is a new or an updated value, expressed as a coded value.


470 : Data supplier - person ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The database internal record ID from the Person database which identifies the person who is the closest known to the original data upon which this value is based. Comment: Field 465[Data source type] shows the relationship of this person to the original data.


471 : Data supplier - org ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 9 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The database internal record ID from the Organisation database which identifies the organisation of the person who supplied the original source information on which this field value is based.


472 : Data date - year
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 4 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The year component of the date the information was supplied by the earliest known original information source identified in 470[Data supplier - person ID]. The format is always to be 4 digits.


473 : Data date - month
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The month component of the date the information was supplied by the earliest known original information source. Format is in the range 1-12. Usage: Leave blank if unknown.


474 : Data date - day
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The day component of the date the information was supplied by the earliest known original information source. Format is in the range 1-31. Usage: Leave blank if unknown.


475 : Data date - qualifier
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The reliability of the date given as the data date for the data upon which this field value is based. Expressed as a code value.


476 : Data date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The date the information was supplied by the earliest known original information source identified in 470[Data supplier - person ID]. This field is of "date" type. Comment: (1) This field is available for use where the separate date components of year, month, day are not wanted. (2) Its use does imply that a full valid date is always available for entry.


477 : Discoverer date qualifier
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The reliability of the date of the respective discovery event.


509 : Genus confidence level
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The confidence level that the genus of this specimen found in the cave has been correctly identified. Expressed as a coded value.


510 : Species confidence level
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The confidence level that the species name for this specimen found in the cave has been correctly identified. Expressed as a coded value.


511 : Vertical extent
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 7.2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The overall vertical distance in metres between the highest and lowest known points of the cave or karst feature, expressed as an unsigned value. Usage: (1) To record the extent relative to the cave entrance, use fields 59[Extent below entrance] and 60[Extent above entrance]. (2) In the case of a cave whose highest or lowest point is an entrance leading off a karst feature, such as a cave descending from the bottom of a doline, then the vertical extent of the cave should be measured from where the cave leaves the profile of the karst feature. (3) If this field is completed, then 61[Vertical method] should be completed, and also 62[Vertical accuracy] if possible. (4) Any underwater depth, if known, should be included. The depth to the water-table can be shown in 53[Comments], e.g. "wtable -50m". (5) When caves join, or when there is more than one numbered entrance, this field should be completed in the nominated "cave" record, and left blank in any entrance records. Comment: Max text length: sign(0)+whole(4)+sep(1)+dec(2)=total 7, scale 2.


514 : Position - geog precision
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The +/- precision of the stated full latitude and longitude values given in the "exact position" fields, 245[Position - latitude] and 246[Position - longitude], expressed as degrees.decimal degrees. Example: A latitude expressed as closely as +/- 1 second would have a degress.decimal degrees precision of 0.00028. Comment: The precision is how closely (number of significant digits) the lat/long has been expressed, not necessarily how accurate (true) the value is. Accuracy can be expressed via field 515[Position - geog accuracy]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(2)+sep(1)+dec(5) = total 8, scale 5.


515 : Position - geog accuracy
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 8.5 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The +/- accuracy of the stated full latitude and longitude values given in the "exact position" fields 245[Position - latitude] and 246[Position - longitude], expressed as degrees.decimal degrees. Example: A latitude whose value was accurate to +/- 1 second would have a degrees.decimal degrees accuracy of 0.00028. Comment: The accuracy is how close the given value is to the true value, not how precisely (number of significant digits) it has been expressed. The precision can be given in field 514[Position - geog precision]. Max text length: sign(0)+whole(2)+sep(1)+dec(5) = total 8, scale 5.


518 : Map numberer org code
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The standard 3-letter organisation code of the numberer of this map which has been referenced for this cave or karst feature. Comment: This may differ from the organisation which produced the map, e.g. a caving club numbering a cave map produced by a govt agency Usage: (1) This field may need to be entered only when it is not automatically available via a lookup or link on 265[Map ID], or if the map is not yet in available in the site's map database.


519 : Updating organisation ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 9 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The internal record ID from the Organisation database which identifies the organisation which has supplied the updates for a specific cave and field in a specific data upload to a more central system. Comment: (1) This field is not entered by a user but is auto-filled by the system. (2) It is used when attributing updates to stakeholder organisations.


520 : Data - key-in ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The Key-in ID used for a particular field value. Usage: Auto-filled by the system.


521 : Data - upload ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The Upload ID used for a particular field value. Usage: Auto-filled by the system.


522 : Discoverer surname
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 30 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The surname or family name of a person involved in the initial discovery or recording aspects of this cave or karst feature. Comment: (1) This field is available for use in tables where the surname cannot be provided by a lookup on 419[Discoverer - person ID] either because of software limitations or because the person is not yet in the Person database. Usage: (1) If the person is available in the Person database, this field will be auto-filled by the 419[Discoverer - person ID] field. (2) If the Person ID is not available, manually enter the person's surname.


523 : Discoverer firstname
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The firstname or given name of a person involved in the initial discovery or recording aspects of this cave or karst feature. Comments: As for 522[Discoverer surname]. Usage: As for 522[Discoverer surname].


524 : Discoverer - org initials
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 8 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The normal initials of an organisation involved with the initial discovery or recording aspects of this cave or karst feature. Its format excludes full stops (periods). Comments: Similar to the Comments in 522[Discoverer surname] but based on 420[Discoverer - org ID]. Usage: Similar to Usage in 522[Discoverer surname] but based on 420[Discoverer - org ID].


525 : Cave description line
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 62 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: One line of description, from among one to several, for this cave or karst feature. Comment: This field is for use where, for example, a memo-type field is not available in the database system. The memo-type version of this field is 530[Cave description memo]. Usage: When using this field, care should be taken to avoid recording only here, factual information about the cave or karst feature which can be recorded in a more useful and findable way under other fields which are more specific to that kind of information. Information which is recorded only in a general description is much harder and less reliably found in a search or report from the database.


527 : Depth category
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 1 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The broad depth grouping to which the cave belongs, expressed as a coded value from 0 to 9, 0 meaning unknown category. Comment: As for Comments in 297[Length category].


528 : Size category
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The broad length and depth grouping to which the cave belongs, expressed as a pair of numeric codes, being the concatenation of 297[Length category] followed by 527[Depth category]. If either component is unknown, that component is set to zero. Comment: As for Comment in 297[Length category]. Usage: As this is a "calculated" field, it normally does not need to be physically stored, but can be calculated when needed from its component fields.


530 : Cave description memo
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 255 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: A description of the cave or karst feature in a free-text memo-type field. Comment: An alternative non-memo-type yet unlimited field is 525[Cave description line]. Usage: When using this field, care should be taken to avoid recording only here, factual information about the cave or karst feature which can be recorded in a more useful and findable way under other fields which are more specific to that kind of information. Information which is recorded only in a general description is much harder and less reliably found in a search or report from the database.


531 : Orientation
Entity: CA
Data type: Numeric Max length: 5.1 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The predominant orientation of the cave or karst feature expressed as degrees.decimal degrees from True North, using a 360-degree scale. Comment: Max text length: sign(0)+whole(3)+sep(1)+dec(1) = total 5, scale 1.


532 : Entrance feature type
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: A karst feature type associated with this entrance to the cave.


533 : Entrance development
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 3 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The morphological development of this entrance expressed as key words.


534 : Entrance description memo
Entity: CA
Data type: Max length: 0 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: A description of this entrance to the cave using a free-text memo-type field. Comment: An alternative non-memo-type yet unlimited field is 535[Entrance description line]. Usage: When using this field, care should be taken to avoid recording only here, factual information about the entrance which can be recorded in a more useful and findable way under other fields which are more specific to that kind of information. Information which is recorded only in a general description is much harder and less reliably found in a search or report from the database.


535 : Entrance description line
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 62 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: One line of description, from among one to several, of this entrance to the cave. Comment: For use when the database system does not have memo-type fields available. Usage: When using this field, care should be taken to avoid recording only here, factual information about the entrance which can be recorded in a more useful and findable way under other fields which are more specific to that kind of information. Information which is recorded only in a general description is much harder and less reliably found in a search or report from the database.


536 : Entrance photoID - near
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The Photo ID of a photograph which shows a close-up view of this entrance to the cave. Comment: This may link to the Photos database where the actual image may be stored.


537 : Entrance photoID - locale
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The Photo ID of a long-shot photograph which shows the context in which this entrance is situated. Comment: This may link to the Photos database where the actual image may be stored.


538 : Entrance photoID - tag
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The Photo ID of a photograph which shows the cave or entrance number marking which identifies this entrance of the cave. Comment: This may link to the Photos database where the actual image may be stored.


540 : Cave photo ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The photo ID of a photograph of or in the cave or karst feature. Comment: This may link to the Photos database where the actual image may be stored.


542 : Entrance land parcel ID
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The record ID of the land parcel on which this entrance or karst feature is located.


625 : Position - geodetic datum
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The geodetic datum used in determining this position for this cave or karst feature, expressed in abbreviated form.


626 : Position - map grid
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The map grid used in determining this position for this cave or karst feature, expressed in abbreviated form.


627 : Altitude - height datum
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The height datum used in determining this position for this cave or karst feature, expressed in abbreviated form.


628 : Position - method
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 2 Coding: I  (codes) Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The method used in determining this position for this cave or karst feature, expressed as a coded value.


629 : Grid ref - geodetic datum
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The geodetic datum used in determining this map grid reference for this cave or karst feature, expressed in abbreviated form.


630 : Grid ref - map grid
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 20 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The map grid used in determining this map grid reference for this cave or karst feature, expressed in abbreviated form.


631 : Position - date
Entity: CA
Data type: Alphanumeric Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: S

Definition: The date on which this position for this cave or karst feature was determined.


632 : Grid ref - date
Entity: CA
Data type: Date Max length: 10 Coding: U Single/Multi-valued: M

Definition: The date on which this position for this cave or karst feature was determined.


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Notes

Entities:
   AR = Article in a publication
   AT = Field or attribute
   AV = Field value
   CA = Cave or karst feature
   EN = Entity
   JN = Journal
   OR = Organisation
   PA = Land parcel
   PE = Person
   PH = Photograph
   PL = Plan or map
   PM = Marker (Permanent mark)
   PS = Map series
   RE = Region or area
   RP = Report
   SM = Specimen
   SP = Species
   ST = Site
   SU = Subject
   SV = Survey
   SY = System field
   XK = A key-in batch
   XL = An upload batch
   XU = An update batch

Data type:

   A = Alphanumeric
   N = Numeric; A "real" number allowing decimal places and many significant digits, typically around 15.
   D = Date
   L = Logical; True or False.
   I = Integer (short); A whole number in the range -32,767 to +32,768.
   M = Memo; A variable-length free-text field.
   B = BLOB; A Binary Large Object, e.g. a photo image.
Maximum length:
When a Numeric data type is expressed as text characters, its maximum length must allow for the maximum value and the finest precision, and if necessary, a leading sign. This maximum must also be considered on an international basis. For example, a field value which has maximum text characters of "-9999.999" consists of sign(1) + whole number digits(4) + decimal separator(1) + decimal digits(3), giving a total text length of 9, with a "scale" of 3. This would be expressed as a "Max. length" of 9.3

Codes for field coding:

   I = International coding   U = Uncoded   L = Locally coded
Codes for single or multi-valued:
   S = Single-valued   M = Multi-valued



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